국제노동기구(ILO)의 표준직업분류  
 

 
 

 
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 88년에 개정된 국제표준직업분류(ISCO-88: International Standard Classification of Occupation)는 1968년 국제분류(ISCO-68)의 개정판으로 82년과 87년에 제네바에서 열린 국제노동기구(ILO) 13, 14차 국제 노동통계회의의 의견과 결정에 따라 이루어 진 것이다.
 

 ISCO-88의 목적은 다음과 같다.

 1) 직업에 대한 국제적인 의사소통 촉진
 2) 각국의 노동정책 수립이나 직업연구자들에게 유용한 정보 제공
 3) 각국의 직업 분류를 개발하거나 개정하려는 국가들을 위한 모델을 제공.
 
  ISCO-88의 직업분류의 기본구조는 수행되는 작업 혹은 직무(Work performed or Job)의 종류와 직능(Skill) 개념으로 이루어져 있다.

 1) 직무 (Job): 어떤 사람에 의해 실행된 임무와 과업(tasks and duties)의 묶음이나 수행되어야 하는 것을 의미하며, ISCO-88에 의해 분류된 통계적 단위(Unit)이다. 주요 임무나 과업이 높은 정도의 유사성에 의해 특징화된 일련의 직무들은 직업(occupation)을 구성한다.
 2) 직능(Skill): 주어진 직무의 과업이나 임무들을 수행할 수 있는 능력으로 정의되며, ISCO-88의 목적을 위해 다음의 두 가지 차원을 가진다.
  a) 직능수준(Skill Level) - 수반된 과업이나 임무의 범위나 복잡성의 함수(function).
  4가지 직능수준이 교육 범주들과 ISCED(국제표준교육분류: International Standard Classification of Education)에 나타나는 수준들에 의한 조작적으로 정의되고 있다. 필요한 직능은 정규교육 뿐만 아니라 훈련과 경험에 의해서도 습득가능하다. ISCO-88에서 강조하고 있는 것은 입직하기 위해 요구되는 직능이 아니라 직업의 과업이나 임무를 수행하기위해 요구되는 직능이다.

  다음의 ISCO 직능 수준들은 필수적인 직업적 숙련이 정규교육이나 직업 훈련을 통해서 어디에서 습득되는지를 제공한다.
 

  a. 1번째 ISCO 직능 수준은 일반적으로 5, 6, 7세에 시작하여, 약 5년정도 지속되는 초등교육을 포함하는 ISCED 범주1에 의해 정의된다. (초등학교 정도)

  b. 2번째 ISCO 직능 수준은 2차 교육의 첫 번째, 두 번째 단계를 포함하는 ISCED 범주 2와 3에 의해 정의된다. (중, 고등학교 정도) 현장훈련(OJT)기간이나 경험이 필요할 수도 있다.

  c. 3번째 ISCO 직능 수준은 17, 18세에 시작하여 약 4년 정도를 유지하고, 대학1학년 수준은 아니라는 평가에 이르는 교육을 포함하는 ISCED 범주 5에 의해 정의된다. (4번째 수준은 내용없이 일부러 남겨진 것이었다.)

  d. 4번째 ISCO 직능 수준은 대졸이나 대학원졸 이상 또는 동등 학력에 이르는 교육 포함.

 (b) 직능의 전문성(Skill Specialisation) - 생산된 상품이나 서비스의 종류뿐만 아니라 작업에 필요한 물질, 사용된 도구나 기계, 요구되는 지식의 영역에 의해 정의된다.

 이러한 분류기준에 따른 ISCO의 분류구조는 9개의 Major 집단(대분류), 28개의 sub-major 집단(중분류), 116개의 minor 집단(소분류), 390개의 unit 집단(세분류)로 구성되는 위계구조를 지닌다.
 ISCO-88 군집들의 4 수준에서 각각의 집단들은 code 숫자와 이름, 내용에 대한 간략한 기술을 갖게 된다. unit 집단의 경우에, 각각에 속하게 되는 직업의 주요과업(main task)은 간단히 기술되고, 몇몇의 관련 직업들이 예로서 열거된다. 관련직업들은 ISCO-88의 체계중 다른 곳에서 정의된 직업들이 예시되는 것인데, 이는 모호한 점들을 명확하게 정의하고, ISCO-88의 개념적 접근과 그 구조의 특징을 강조하기 위한 것이다.

 * ISCO의 Major group: 9개 집단(KSCO는 ISCO의 분류를 그대로 따름)

【분류단계별 항목수】

 
대분류(10개) 중분류 소분류 세분류 ISCD 수준
1. Legislators, senior officials and managers  3 8 33 --
2. Professionals 4 18 55 4th
3. Technicians and associate professionals 4 21 73 3rd
4. Clerks 2 7 23 2nd
5. Service workers and shop market sales workers 2 9 23 2nd
6. Skilled agricultural and fishery workers 2 6 17 2nd
7. Craft and related trades workers 4 16 70 2nd
8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers 3 20 70 2nd
9. Elementary occupations 3 10 25 1st
0. Armed forces 1 1 --  
28 116 390 --
 

 

【ISCO-88 전체 목록】

 

MAJOR, SUBMAJOR AND MINOR GROUPS

Major group 1: Legislators, senior officials and managers

11 Legislators and senior officials

111 Legislators

112 Senior government officials

113 Traditional chiefs and heads of villages

114 Senior officials of special interest organizations

12 Corporate managers

121 Directors and chief executives

122 Production and operations department managers

123 Other departmental managers

13 General managers

131 General managers

Major group 2: Professionals

21 Physical, mathematical and engineering science professionals

211 Physicists, chemists and related professionals

212 Mathematicians, statisticians and related professionals

213 Computing professionals

214 Architects, engineers and related professionals

22 Life science and health professionals

221 Life science professionals

222 Health professionals (except nursing)

223 Nursing and midwifery professionals

23 Teaching professionals

231 College, university and higher education teaching professionals

232 Secondary education teaching professionals

233 Primary and pre-primary education teaching professionals

234 Special education teaching professionals

235 Other teaching professionals

24 Other professionals

241 Business professionals

242 Legal professionals

243 Archivists, librarians and related information professionals

244 Social sciences and related professionals

245 Writers and creative or performing artists

246 Religious professionals

Major group 3: Technicians and associate professionals

31 Physical and engineering science associate professionals

311 Physical and engineering science technicians

312 Computer associate professionals

313 Optical and electronic equipment operators

314 Ship and aircraft controllers and technicians

315 Safety and quality inspectors

32 Life science and health associate professionals

321 Life science technicians and related associate professionals

322 Modern health associate professionals (except nursing)

323 Nursing and midwifery associate professionals

324 Traditional medicine practitioners and faith-healers

33 Teaching associate professionals

331 Primary education teaching associate professionals

332 Pre-primary education teaching associate professionals

333 Special education teaching associate professionals

334 Other teaching associate professionals

34 Other associate professionals

341 Finance and sales associate professionals

342 Business services agents and trade brokers

343 Administrative associate professionals

344 Customs, tax and related government associate professionals

345 Police inspectors and detectives

346 Social work associate professionals

347 Artistic, entertainment and sports associate professionals

348 Religious associate professionals

Major group 4: Clerks

41 Office clerks

411 Secretaries and keyboard-operating clerks

412 Numerical clerks

413 Material-recording and transport clerks

414 Library, mail and related clerks

419 Other office clerks

42 Customer service clerks

421 Cashiers, tellers and related clerks

422 Client information clerks

Major group 5: Service workers and shop and market sales workers

51 Personal and protective services workers

511 Travel attendants and related workers

512 Housekeeping and restaurant services workers

513 Personal care and related workers

514 Other personal service workers

515 Astrologers, fortune-tellers and related workers

516 Protective services workers

52 Models, salespersons and demonstrators

521 Fashion and other models

522 Shop salespersons and demonstrators

523 Stall and market salespersons

Major group 6: Skilled agricultural and fishery workers

61 Market-oriented skilled agricultural and fishery workers

611 Market gardeners and crop growers

612 Market-oriented animal producers and related workers

613 Market-oriented crop and animal producers

614 Forestry and related workers

615 Fishery workers, hunters and trappers

62 Subsistence agricultural and fishery workers

621 Subsistence agricultural and fishery workers

Major group 7: Craft and related trades workers

71 Extraction and building trade workers

711 Miners, shot-firers, stonecutters and carvers

712 Building frame and related trades workers

713 Building finishers and related trades workers

714 Painters, building structure cleaners and related trade workers

72 Metal, machinery and related trades workers

721 Metal moulders, welders, sheet-metalworkers, structural-metal preparers and related trades workers

722 Blacksmiths, toolmakers and related trades workers

723 Machinery mechanics and fitters

724 Electrical and electronic equipment mechanics and fitters

73 Precision, handicraft, printing and related trades workers

731 Precision workers in metal and related materials

732 Potters, glass-makers and related trades workers

733 Handicraft workers in wood, textile, leather and related materials

734 Printing and related trades workers

74 Other craft and related trades workers

741 Food processing and related trades workers

742 Wood treaters, cabinet-makers and related trades workers

743 Textile, garment and related trades workers

744 Felt, leather and shoemaking trades workers

Major group 8: Plant and machine operators and assemblers

81 Stationary plant and related operators

811 Mining and mineral-processing plant operators

812 Metal-processing plant operators

813 Glass, ceramics and related plant operators

814 Wood processing and papermaking plant operators

815 Chemical processing plant operators

816 Power production and related plant operators

817 Automated assembly-line and industrial robot operators

82 Machine operators and assemblers

821 Metal and mineral products machine operators

822 Chemical products machine operators

823 Rubber and plastic products machine operators

824 Wood products machine operators

825 Printing, binding and paper products machine operators

826 Textile, fur and leather products machine operators

827 Food and related products machine operators

828 Assemblers

829 Other machine operators and assemblers

83 Drivers and mobile plant operators

831 Locomotive engine-drivers and related workers

832 Motor vehicle drivers

833 Agricultural and other mobile plant operators

834 Ships' deck crews and related workers

Major group 9: Elementary occupations

91 Sales and services elementary occupations

911 Street vendors and related workers

912 Shoe cleaning and other street services' elementary occupations

913 Domestic and related helpers, cleaners and launderers

914 Building caretakers, window and related cleaners

915 Messengers, porters, doorkeepers and related workers

916 Garbage collectors and related labourers

92 Agricultural, fishery and related labourers

921 Agricultural, fishery and related labourers

93 Labourers in mining, construction, manufacturing and transport

931 Mining and construction labourers

932 Manufacturing labourers

933 Transport labourers and freight handlers

Major group 0: Armed forces

01 Armed forces

011 Armed forces